Explain the difference between the concepts of formal and informal

Explain the difference between the concepts of formal and informal organization. What are the similarities and differences between scientific management and human relations theory in terms of these concepts?

For scientific management, you could explain how frederick winslow taylor popularized this management style, and maybe use hawthorne’s experiment for examples. additional reference for scientific management and human relations theory:

Edwards, R. (1979) Contested terrain: the transformation of the workplace in the twentieth century. London: Heinemann Littler, C.R. (1982) The development of the labour process in capitalist societies: a comparative study of the transformation of work organization in Britain, Japan and the USA. London: Heinemann Friedman, A.L. (1977) Industry and labour: class struggle at work and monopoly capitalism. Basingstoke: Macmillan Littler, C.R. (1985) “Taylorism, Fordism and job re-design.” In: Knights D., Willmott, H. & Collinson D.L. (eds.) Job redesign: critical perspectives on the labour process. London: Macmillan Schwartzman H., (1993) Ethnography in Organizations. Qualitative Research Methods Series, Volume 27. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. [Hawthorne studies]. Basic 9 Carey A. (1967). ‘The Hawthorne Studies: A Radical Criticism’, American Sociological Review 32 (4), pp 403-416 Shenhav, Y. (1999) Manufacturing rationality: the engineering foundations of the managerial revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Advanced

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