Work is a part of the daily lives of most people, and in many of the positions we have occupied throughout lives, we have worked under the supervision of a leader or superior. Your text summarizes the research on leadership and management styles and then comments on differences across cultures. We often talk about effective leaders or natural leaders or leaders who usher in change, but regardless of what we call leaders in American culture, we tend to value effective and charismatic leaders that can impart transformative change in our organizations. In fact, theorists have developed a hierarchy of leadership effectiveness that ranges from the highly competent individual who makes productive contributions and had good work habits to the level 5 leader or the Executive who builds organizational greatness through vision, commitment, will and humility.
Think back about the leaders or supervisors for whom you have worked. Which leadership and management styles did you experience as most positive and were most effective at encouraging you to be a productive employee? Which leadership styles resulted in the production of negative attitudes or decreased motivation to perform well?