Appeals are rhetorical devices used to help persuade an audience.

Appeals are rhetorical devices used to help persuade an audience. Appeals do not necessarily make an argument credible; however, they can make the argument more relatable or believable. The appeals listed below can strengthen an argument when used correctly and in proper moderation, but can cheapen a rhetorical work if misused or overused. 

Socratic Appeals: 

Ethos–offers the audience evidence that he or she is credible. The communicator attempts to prove that he or she is well-informed about the topic at hand and that he or she is a good person with the audience’s best interests in mind. This type
of appeal may use testimonials, specialists, or God as support for his or her work. 

Logos–offers the audience clear, reasonable ideas developed through reasoning and logic. This type of appeal may use reasoned examples, details and/or statistics. 

Pathos–draws on the audience’s emotions so they will be sympathetic to the communicator’s ideas. 

General Appeals (that fall under the umbrella of ethos, logos or pathos): 

Altruism--appeals to an audience’s sense of goodness or morality. 

Anger–appeals to an audience’s sense of anger, outrage or hate. 

Fear–appeals to an audience’s fears or anxieties.

Flag-waving or patriotic–appeals to an audience’s sense of patriotism. 

Intelligence–appeals to an audience’s reasoning or wisdom. 

Plain Folk–appeals to the experiences of the common man.

Snob–appeals to an audience’s taste for the finer, and usually unobtainable, things in life. 

Practice: 

Find at least one example of each of the 10 appeals listed above from the images on the internet; examples can be in the form of words and/or images. Create a PowerPoint or Google slides with the example(s) of each of the appeals and provide a brief explanation of how the words and/or images embody that appeal.

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