#1. T A Class, We have already discovered health is

 #1. T A


We have already discovered health is very complex topic. Lets look at how developmental, gender, and sociocultural factors play a role in health. As well, I will the impact it has on the individual, spanning into the communities they live in. 

Health begins from conception. How to mother lives is a direct link to the unborn fetus. What her personal attitude towards health is determines many aspects of the fetus’s life once it is born. If the mother smokes, or consumes illegal drugs while pregnant, she is not only putting herself at risk of addiction and death, she is also putting the fetus at risk of both occurrences, including low birth-weight, premature delivery, and birth defects (heredity predispositions). The mother is beginning a cycle of negative health factors. Once a baby is born (healthy or unhealthy) the developmental health factors are still influenced on adults and caretakers, since they are a child modeling what they see. A child is also limited on the decisions they can make, making them dependent on the adults lifestyle decisions. As the child gets older, they will look to their peers and the influences they bring to the table to build on their developmental health factors. It is possible a child can either pick up bad habits or gain positive habits from their peers. As the child gets older, and they engage in school age, it is likely they will become more active and be provided with meals from school. Since the Obama era, schools have changed their lunch menus to ensure a more healthy food selection. Many schools even offer free breakfast for children, to allow opportunity for all children to eat a balanced meal before class. Starting children off with a healthy foundation will promote healthy choices as adults which will in turn create healthier and safer communities for everyone. 

Gender also plays a role in health factors. As little boys, they are taught to be tough. They are encouraged to hold their emotions in, and not cry. They are taught to be masculine and look masculine as well. Unfortunately, this is more prominent and expected in the African American communities. Just as unfortunate, these young boys also tend to suffer from toxic masculinity. According to our text, males get more exercise than girls do (,2017). Males also tend to engage in more risky behaviors, seek medical advice less, smoke and drink more than their counterparts, work is places that are more hazardous, and carry more stress than females do. Thanks to women having higher levels of estrogen, their chances of suffering cardiovascular disease is less than men (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). If men avoid lifestyle changes to reduce their stress, they are not only at greater chance of obesity, heart attacks, diabetes, and high blood pressure, they are also less likely to survive a heart attack. This is because they typically disregard the warning signs and do not go to the doctor to get examined. When a male dies, who is also head of the household, not only does this present a family problem on a financial level; also an emotional level for the surviving family members. A community strives best when all members are contributing in a positive manner. If men would facilitate a man’s night out and encourage gym night or something to engage in healthy activities throughout their communities, perhaps men would band together to release their stress in a more healthy way. Rather than having poker night, or Friday night football. Both in which activities such as smoking, drinking, and eating unhealthy are usually associated. 

Socioculture factors in health can consist of Income, occupation, as well as education. Sometimes the way health gets viewed is also a cultural belief as well. People from different cultures respond to pain and illnesses differently (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Often times when immigrants arrive in a new culture it is easier for them to maintain their primary culture of living. However, as the second generation get older, they are much more likely to leave their ancestors norms, values, and health beliefs and adapt to the current societal beliefs. For example, if a Native American chooses to leave his or her reservation, chances are greater he or she will seek traditional medicine over homeopathic medicine. Or when a husband and wife leave their native lands to come to America, they may try to hold on to their cultural values. However, if they have children, their children are likely to adapt to American cultures when they are old enough to view their peers way of living. This can cause strain on families as well on communities. This can sometimes cause illnesses to go untreated if a person who no longer has the medicine they are use to (certain herbs are only grown in particular regions) and they do not feel safe or comfortable using traditional prescription (synthetic) medications. Income can make a huge difference in those able to seek health treatments over those who cannot. Medicine, whether it be for the mind or body is only helpful if you have resources and the means having the ability to get it. This is where the community plays a viable role. Our community leaders need to understand the importance of having safe places to exercise, as well as our doctors providing encouragement and information about the benefits of living a healthy lifestyle (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). The number of fast food chains in our community plays a role in health as well (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). When fast food is the majority in options, that is what we will eat. Our community leaders need to try to get businesses in that promote healthy lifestyles. I am very interested to see if I can find anything correlating poorer health with towns that have greater number of bars and fast food restaurants over towns that are dry and have healthier food options or farmers markets. 

I am excited to read what everyone else has to say on this topic! I think this could be a fifty page research paper in itself! Lots and lots of material and information.



Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486 http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/wiley-and-sons/2016/health-psychology_biopsychosocial-interactions_9e.php 

#2.  G S

Good evening Ms. Floren and Class,

 Factors in Health

  Development- According to Sarafino & Smith (2017),people change overtime through the process called development,characteristic of a person are considered with respect to their prior development current level and likely development in the future(Hayman,2007).with the kind of illness people have to tend to change with age. Age as we compared with older people, children are more likely to experience activity limitation from chronic illness, for instance, adolescents and young adults are in high risk for injury such as automobile accidents, in younger age they tend to have accident falling on swimming pool and drawn or getting burn on the  stove, for some older adults they are relatively in high risk for hypertension, stroke and or heart disease.

Gender- play a big role in such as in the health related behavior,males and females perform and the illness they develop, it can also determinant of health due to the different ways men and women live their life. An example men smoke more and drink more than women do ,thereby making men susceptible to cardio vascular and respiratory diseases,that some form of cancer and cirrhosis of the liver(Sarafino & Smith 2017).While females sex hormone estrogen appears to delay heart disease , another examples is that American women have much higher rates that men of acute illness,such respiratory and digestive ailments and nonfatal chronic diseases (arthritis,anemia, and headache).

Social cultural- Social determinants of health are the condition that we live,learn,work and play in. These conditions can influence the health and well-being of you and your community,these factors affect your ability to take part in healthy behaviors and health (CDC,2020)

Some of the factors that can influence a person health is Education,this can affect on how healthy you are,it gives you the tools you need to make a good decision about your health,next is the income,people with the higher income tend to be healthier and live longer than people with low income,another significance is the environment yoou live in can impact your health,people who are continually exposed to poor living condition have a higher risk of developing health problems(CDC,2020)


Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486



    CDC,(2020)   Retrieve from:  http://www familydoctor.org/social-cultural-factors-can-influence-healthSocial and Cultural Factors that Can    Influence Your Health – familydoctor.org

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Part 2

#1.   Tr  An


Last year I got kicked by a race horse who had race shoes on. By race shoes, I mean he had “toe grabs” on his shoes which help the horse keep traction in the footing. Although they are only 3mm long, they can cut like a razor blade. My 17 HH thoroughbred got stung by a wasp and stuck me with both hind legs. Hard enough to not only throw me up in the air, but knock me back over ten foot. One of his hooves went inside my stomach cavity, tearing my large intestine and severing my gull bladder. I was pronounced dead three times. Although I don’t recall, I was told I demanded my husband be nice to my horse and not to shoot him. This occurred September 23rd, just a week shy from a big stakes race I had been preparing for all year. I was told I would be in the trauma center for a few weeks, then I was to be off work for at least three months. Why am I sharing this story? Because I am horrible at adherence! And it almost cost me my life. I stayed in the hospital for four days and demanded to be let out. I had forty-six sutures on the inside of me and thirty-seven staples on the outside of me. I told my husband I was leaning the hospital and did not care if I had his support or not. I signed the papers documenting I was leaving on my own free will against my doctors orders. I left the hospital, went to Rural King, “borrowed” a pair of snips and snipped my staples off. The backside of the track said I could not return until my staples were taken out. So, I took them out myself. I drove three hours to the track and began working with my horses. Because I am a recovering addict, I refuse to take pain medication- for anything. 

Adherence is defined as the degree in which a patient voluntarily integrates and collaborates with the healthcare provider in terms of instructions regarding dosage, timing, and frequency of medication prescribed (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). As I stated above, I do not follow adherence. And in the above situation, I regret not doing so. I not only tore my muscle wall open, I also developed a hernia. Because I failed to listen to the doctors I did not go back for help due to embarrassment and shame, I dealt with the pain and misery. It was not until I had to go in for my hysterectomy that a nurse saw the damage I did to myself. I had major complications during my hysterectomy. One reason I fail to adherence is because I do not want to take medication. Even though I tell doctors I am a recovering addict, I have had countless prescriptions written to me that were narcotics. They have given me prescriptions for fentanyl, morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, tramadol, and codeine on many many occasions. I tell the doctors again about my situation, and they always tell me the same thing, “This is only a temporary medication to help you heal. Your body can not heal when it is under this much stress.” My trust in doctors is next to nothing. 

There are many factors that come together when deciding on accepting medical treatment. Does the patient trust the physician or hospital (Sarafino & Smith, 2017)? Do they have the support network in place to go? Do they have the means to access health services? Do they share the same language and understandings of the cultural views (Shahin, Kennedy, & Stupans, 2020)? Can they afford the cost of their visit or medications? 

If you are poor, lack resources, lack education, face cultural gaps, distrust hospitals and the caregivers, you are less likely to seek medical treatment (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). There are also some instances where those with certain religious beliefs will not seek traditional medical care for them, or their minor children.



Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486 http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/wiley-and-sons/2016/health-psychology_biopsychosocial-interactions_9e.php

Shahin, W., Kennedy, G. A., & Stupans, I. (2020). The impact of personal and cultural beliefs on medication adherence of patients with chronic illnesses: a systematic review. Patient Preference and Adherence, 1019b. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.2147/PPA.S212046 

#2.   Tra And


The last question of this DQ sparked a question. Do you consider a parent who withholds medical treatment from their minor child due to religious beliefs neglectful? Should they lose parental custody of the child in these situations? There was a case that went to the Supreme Court of Delaware (Newmark v. Williams), where the courts decided to grant the parents their wishes on not giving their child cancer treatments for Burkitt’s lymphoma, even though with chemo treatments he had a 40% chance of survival.  Agree or disagree?  

You have to request the journal, but here is the information for it.

Rhodes, A. M. (1992). Parental prerogatives: Newmark v. Williams. MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 17(4), 197. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1097/00005721-199207000-00012 

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