1. In aqueous solutions, there are three forms of glucose: the cyclic alpha-form (36%), the cyclic beta-form (64%), and a trace amount of the open-chain form. At equilibrium, the cyclic alpha- and beta-forms are constantly interchanging when in solution. (1) Explain why the cyclic forms exist predominately in solutions, AND (2) explain why the cyclic beta-form is more abundant than the cyclic alpha-form.
2. Name the monosaccharides and disaccharides in amylose and cellulose. Compare the structural and conformation differences between amylose and cellulose. A simple iodine test can be used to distinguish the two polysaccharides. (1) Describe the iodine test AND (2) explain the observation.
3. List AND explain the side effects that can be caused consuming too much sorbitol.
4. Why are soluble fibers identified as prebiotics?