What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential to initiate an action potential?
Question 1 options:
Potassium gates open and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive
Sodium gates open and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.
Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.
Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.
What is a consequence of leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injury?
Question 2 options:
Enzymatic digestion of the nucleus and nucleolus occurs, halting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis.
Influx of potassium ions into the mitochondria occurs, halting the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
Edema of the Golgi body occurs, preventing the transport of proteins out of the cell.
Shift of calcium out of the plasma membrane occurs, destroying the cytoskeleton.
In hypoxic injury, sodium enters the cell and causes swelling because:
Question 3 options:
The cell membrane permeability increases for sodium during periods of hypoxia.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is insufficient to maintain the pump that keeps sodium out of the cell.
The lactic acid produced by the hypoxia binds with sodium in the cell.
Sodium cannot be transported to the cell membrane during hypoxia.
What mechanisms occur in the liver cells as a result of lipid accumulation?
Question 4 options:
Obstruction of the common bile duct, preventing the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder
Increased synthesis of triglycerides from fatty acids and decreased synthesis of apoproteins
Increased binding of lipids with apoproteins to form lipoproteins
Increased conversion of fatty acids to phospholipids
Which solution is best to use when cleaning a wound that is healing by 101. During an Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, the degranulation of mast cells is a result of which receptor action?
Question 5 options:
Histamine bound to H2
Chemotactic factor binding to the receptor
Epinephrine bound to mast cells
Acetylcholine bound to mast cells
What is the mechanism that results in type II hypersensitivity reactions?
Question 6 options:
Antibodies coat mast cells by binding to receptors that signal its degranulation, followed by a discharge of preformed mediators.
Antibodies bind to soluble antigens that were released into body fluids, and the immune complexes are then deposited in the tissues.
Cytotoxic T (Tc) lymphocytes or lymphokine-producing helper T 1 (Th1) cells directly attack and destroy cellular targets.
Antibodies bind to the antigens on the cell surface.
Type III hypersensitivity reactions are a result of which of the following?
Question 7 options:
Antibodies coating mast cells by binding to receptors that signal its degranulation, followed by the discharge of preformed mediators
Antibodies binding to soluble antigens that were released into body fluids and the immune complexes being deposited in the tissues
Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells or lymphokine-producing helper T 1 (Th1) cells directly attacking and destroying cellular targets
Antibodies binding to the antigen on the cell surface
Tissue damage caused by the deposition of circulating immune complexes containing an antibody against the host deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the cause of which disease?
Question 8 options:
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Why does tissue damage occur in acute rejection after organ transplantation?
Question 9 options:
Th1 cells release cytokines that activate infiltrating macrophages, and cytotoxic T (Tc) cells directly attack the endothelial cells of the transplanted tissue.
Circulating immune complexes are deposited in the endothelial cells of transplanted tissue, where the complement cascade lyses tissue.
Receptors on natural killer (NK) cells recognize antigens on the cell surface of the transplanted tissue, which releases lysosomal enzymes that destroy tissue.
Antibodies coat the surface of the transplanted tissue to which mast cells bind and liberate preformed chemical mediators that destroy tissue.
Oncogenes are genes that are capable of:
Question 10 options:
Undergoing mutation that directs the synthesis of proteins to accelerate the rate of tissue proliferation
Directing synthesis of proteins to regulate growth and to provide necessary replacement of tissue
Encoding proteins that negatively regulate the synthesis of proteins to slow or halt the replacement of tissue
Undergoing mutation that directs malignant tissue toward blood vessels and lymph nodes for metastasis
After the baroreceptor reflex is stimulated, the resulting impulse is transmitted from the carotid artery by which sequence of events?
Question 11 options:
From the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
From the glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase sympathetic activity and to decrease parasympathetic activity
From the glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the medulla to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
From the glossopharyngeal cranial nerve through the vagus nerve to the hypothalamus to increase parasympathetic activity and to decrease sympathetic activity
Regarding the endothelium, what is the difference between healthy vessel walls and those that promote clot formation?
Question 12 options:
Inflammation and roughening of the endothelium of the artery
Hypertrophy and vasoconstriction of the endothelium of the artery
Excessive clot formation and lipid accumulation in the endothelium of the artery
Evidence of age-related changes that weaken the endothelium of the artery
What is the expected electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern when a thrombus in a coronary artery permanently lodges in the vessel and the infarction extends through the myocardium from the endocardium to the epicardium?
Question 13 options:
Prolonged QT interval
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
ST depression myocardial infarction (STDMI)
Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI)
A patient reports sudden onset of severe chest pain that radiates to the back and worsens with respiratory movement and when the patient is lying down. These clinical manifestations describe:
Question 14 options:
Myocardial infarction (MI)
Respirations that are characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing are a result of which respiratory mechanism?
Question 15 options:
Decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata
Increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), decreased acid-base balance (pH), and decreased partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)
Stimulation of stretch or J-receptors
Fatigue of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm
Which cytokines activated in childhood asthma produce an allergic response?
Question 16 options:
IL-1, IL-2, and interferon-alpha (IFN-α)
L-8, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α)
IL-4, IL-10, and colony-stimulating factor (CSF)
IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13
Which statement accurately describes childhood asthma?
Question 17 options:
An obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation
A pulmonary disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest X-ray imaging
A pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein, producing viscous mucus that lines the airways, the pancreas, the sweat ducts, and the vas deferens
An obstructive airway disease characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiency
Improvement on a trial of asthma medication
Which statement best describes cystic fibrosis?
Question 18 options:
Obstructive airway disease characterized by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation
Respiratory disease characterized by severe hypoxemia, decreased pulmonary compliance, and diffuse densities on chest X-ray imaging
A pulmonary disorder involving an abnormal expression of a protein, producing viscous mucus that obstructs the airways, the pancreas, the sweat ducts, and the vas deferens
A pulmonary disorder characterized by atelectasis and increased pulmonary resistance as a result of a surfactant deficiency
What are the abnormalities in cytokines found in children with cystic fibrosis?
Question 19 options:
A deficit of IL-1 and an excess of IL-4, IL-12, and interferon-alpha (IFN-α)
A deficit of IL-6 and an excess of IL-2, IL-8, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
A deficit of IL-10 and an excess of IL-1, IL-8, and TNF-α
A deficit of IL-3 and an excess of IL-14, IL-24, and colony-stimulating factor (CSF)