Some older adults have impaired inflammation and wound healing because of which problem?

Question 20
Examination of the throat in a child demonstrating signs and symptoms of acute epiglottitis may contribute to which life-threatening complication?
Question 20 options:
Retropharyngeal abscess
Rupturing of the tonsils
Gagging induced aspiration
Question 21
Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases?
Question 21 options:
Cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease
Renal diseases, such as acute tubular necrosis and glomerulonephritis
Gastrointestinal diseases, such as peptic ulcer disease and Crohn disease
Muscular diseases, such as muscular dystrophy and fibromyalgia
Question 22
What is a consequence of plasma membrane damage to the mitochondria?
Question 22 options:
Enzymatic digestion halts deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis.
Influx of calcium ions halts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
Edema from an influx in sodium causes a reduction in ATP production.
Potassium shifts out of the mitochondria, which destroys the infrastructure.
Question 23
In addition to osmosis, what force is involved in the movement of water between the plasma and interstitial fluid spaces?
Question 23 options:
Oncotic pressure
Net filtration
Hydrostatic pressure
Question 24
Venous obstruction is a cause of edema because of an increase in which pressure?
Question 24 options:
Capillary hydrostatic
Interstitial hydrostatic
Capillary oncotic
Interstitial oncotic
Question 25
At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because:
Question 25 options:
The interstitial hydrostatic pressure is higher than the capillary hydrostatic pressure.
The capillary hydrostatic pressure is higher than the capillary oncotic pressure.
The interstitial oncotic pressure is higher than the interstitial hydrostatic pressure.
The capillary oncotic pressure is lower than the interstitial hydrostatic pressure.
Question 26
Secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and the perception of thirst are stimulated by:
Question 26 options:
A decrease in serum sodium
An increase in plasma osmolality
An increase in the glomerular filtration rate
A decrease in osmoreceptor stimulation
Question 27
Some older adults have impaired inflammation and wound healing because of which problem?
Question 27 options:
The circulatory system cannot adequately perfuse tissues.
Complement and chemotaxis are deficient.
Underlying chronic illnesses exist.
The number of mast cells is insufficient.
Question 28
Lead poisoning affects the nervous system by:
Question 28 options:
Interfering with the function of neurotransmitters
Inhibiting the production of myelin around the nerves
Increasing the resting membrane potential
Altering the transport of potassium into the nerves
Question 29
Carbon monoxide causes tissue damage by:
Question 29 options:
Competing with carbon dioxide so that it cannot be excreted
Binding to hemoglobin so that it cannot carry oxygen
Destroying the chemical bonds of hemoglobin so it cannot carry oxygen
Removing iron from hemoglobin so it cannot carry oxygen
Question 30
Which statement is true regarding the difference between subdural hematoma and epidural hematoma?
Question 30 options:
No difference exists, and these terms may be correctly used interchangeably.
A subdural hematoma occurs above the dura, whereas an epidural hematoma occurs under the dura.
A subdural hematoma is often the result of shaken baby syndrome, whereas an epidural hematoma rapidly forms as a result of a skull fracture.
A subdural hematoma usually forms from bleeding within the skull, such as an aneurysm eruption, whereas an epidural hematoma occurs from trauma outside the skull, such as a blunt force trauma.
Question 31
What physiologic change occurs during heat exhaustion?
Question 31 options:
Hemoconcentration occurs because of the loss of salt and water.
Cramping of voluntary muscles occurs as a result of salt loss.
Thermoregulation fails because of high core temperatures.
Subcutaneous layers are damaged because of high core temperatures.
Question 32
Hemoprotein accumulations are a result of the excessive storage of:
Question 32 options:
Iron, which is transferred from the cells to the bloodstream
Hemoglobin, which is transferred from the bloodstream to the cells
Albumin, which is transferred from the cells to the bloodstream
Amino acids, which are transferred from the cells to the bloodstream
Question 33
Hemosiderosis results in what substance being stored in excess as hemosiderin in cells of many organs and tissues?
Question 33 options:
Question 34
What two types of hearing loss are associated with noise?
Question 34 options:
Acoustic trauma and noise induced
High frequency and low frequency
High frequency and acoustic trauma
Noise induced and low frequency
Question 35
What type of necrosis results from ischemia of neurons and glial cells?
Question 35 options:
Question 36
During cell injury caused by hypoxia, sodium and water move into the cell because:
Question 36 options:
Potassium moves out of the cell, and potassium and sodium are inversely related.
The pump that transports sodium out of the cell cannot function because of a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels.
The osmotic pressure is increased, which pulls additional sodium across the cell membrane.
Oxygen is not available to bind with sodium to maintain it outside of the cell.
Question 37
In decompression sickness, emboli are formed by bubbles of:
Question 37 options:
Carbon monoxide
Question 38
What is an example of compensatory hyperplasia?
Question 38 options:
Hepatic cells increase cell division after part of the liver is excised.
Skeletal muscle cells atrophy as a result of paralysis.
The heart muscle enlarges as a result of hypertension.
The size of the uterus increases during pregnancy.
Question 39
Current research has determined that chemical-induced cellular injury:
Question 39 options:
Affects the permeability of the plasma membrane
Is often the result of the damage caused by reactive free radicals
Is rarely influenced by lipid peroxidation
Seldom involves the cell’s organelles
Question 40
What is the inflammatory effect of nitric oxide?
Question 40 options:
It increases capillary permeability and causes pain.
It increases neutrophil chemotaxis and platelet aggregation.
It causes smooth muscle contraction and fever.
It decreases mast cell function and decreases platelet aggregation.


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