Respond on two different days who selected different disorders or factors than you, in one or more of the following ways:
Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the disorder your colleague selected.
Offer alternative diagnoses and prescription of treatment options for the disorder your colleague selected.
Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
The reproductive system in males and females is an important part of everyday life. Disorders of the reproductive system can cause physical and emotional stress related to symptoms these disorders cause. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and Uterine Fibroids are just two of many reproductive disorders that wreak havoc on women.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that affects the ovaries and ovulation. PCOS causes hormonal imbalances and metabolism problems. PCOS three main features are; cysts in the ovaries, high levels of male hormones, and irregular or skipped periods. PCOS is a hormonal imbalance along with metabolism issues that can affect overall health and appearance. “Between 5% and 10% of women between 15 and 44” (OWH, 2019), have PCOS and usually are diagnoses between their “20s and 30s trying to conceive but PCOS can happen anytime after puberty” (OWH, 2019). Common symptoms can include but not limited are, Irregular periods, heavy menstruation, male pattern baldness, weight gain, acne, and can increase the risk of heart disease. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, blood work, pelvic exam, and ultrasound. Treatment can include weight loss, increased physical activity, medications (metformin and birth control medications), and surgery. Uterine Fibroids
“Uterine fibroids are the most common noncancerous tumors in women of childbearing age” (CDC, 2019). “They are made of smooth muscle and other cells that can develop within the uterine wall itself or attach to it and can grow as single tumor or a cluster” (Stoppler, M, Davis, C, n.d.) “Fibroids can occur in up to 50% of all women and are one leading cause of hysterectomy” (Stoppler, M, Davis, C, n.d.). There is no significant reason as to why fibroids develop. Risk factors can include, family history, obesity, nulliparity, early on-set of menstruation, and “women of African descent are two to three times more likely to develop fibroids than women of other races” (Stoppler, M, Davis, C, n.d.). Symptoms can include, increase in menstrual bleeding, pressure in the rectum and bladder, which can cause constipation and frequency in urination, pelvic mass, and increase waist circumference. Diagnosis is based on pelvic ultrasound, endometrial biopsy, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy. Treatment of fibroids depends on the severity of symptoms, trying to have children, general overall health, and size and location of the fibroids. If medically necessary to treat fibroids, sometimes medications can help, D&C can be an option, and surgery such as a myomectomy, and hysterectomy.
Age as a Factor
Unfortunately, age can play a role in women diagnoses with PCOS or Uterine fibroids, mainly because of the wanting to have children and the increased risk for cardiovascular disease. PCOS and fibroids usually develop after puberty and are usually diagnosed in childbearing years around 20-30 years of age. It can affect women getting pregnant and make for a difficult road ahead. “Polycystic ovary syndrome puts older women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes following menopause” (Grassi, A, 2014). When a woman has gone through menopause, this causes a decrease in hormones which can decrease the size of fibroids and the development of fibroids. Fibroids need the hormones to develop so without the right number of hormones, fibroids may not develop.
Centers for Disease Control. (2019). Common Reproductive Health Concerns for Women. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/womensrh/healthconcerns.html Galan, N. (2017). Fibroids after menopause: What you need to know. Medical News Today. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319576.php Grassi, A. (2014). PCOS in Aging Women — Beyond Hormones and Hot Flashes. Today’s Dietician. Vol. 16 No. 2 P. 40. Retrieved from https://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/020314p40.shtml Stoppler, M, Davis, C, (n.d.). Uterine Fibroids. Retrieved from https://www.emedicinehealth.com/uterine_fibroids/article_em.htm#what_are_uterine_fibroidsOffice of Women’s Health. (2019). Polycystic ovary syndrome. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/polycystic-ovary-syndrome